Epidemic Modeling

Ixodid tick models

1. Georeferenced data


This website provides up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution of ixodid ticks. The first map depicts a total of 2,044 georeferenced tick locations in Germany. It is based on a digital dataset comprising the following tick species: Ixodes ricinus (1,855 locations), Ixodes apronophorus (1), Ixodes frontalis (1), Ixodes hexagonus (1), Ixodes trianguliceps (4), Dermacentor marginatus (77), Dermacentor reticulatus (96), Haemaphysalis concinna (8) and Hyalomma marginatum (1). The tick map for Germany shows I. ricinus occurring in the whole federal territory, while D. marginatus has been restricted to the climatically favoured region of the Rhine valley. Clustered locations of D. reticulatus were also documented in the Rhine valley as well as in Berlin and its vicinity.

Map of georeferenced tick locations in Germany (Rubel et al., 2014).


The second and third map depicts Dermacentor species in Europe, again based on georeferenced sampling sites. Therefore, a dataset was compiled, resulting in 1286 D. marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) and 1209 D. reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) locations. Special emphasisis given to the region of the European Alps depicting a presumable climate barrier of the mountains andto overlaps in the distribution of both species as well as on the situation in eastern European countries. For the latter newly described Dermacentor findings comprise 59 locations in Romania and 62 locationsin Ukraine. The geographical distributions of both species in Europe range from Portugal to Ukraine (and continue to the east of Kazakhstan). Although it is well known that D. marginatus is adapted to a warmerand drier climate at more southern latitudes and D. reticulatus to a moderately moist climate at morenorthern latitudes, the distribution limits of both species were not well known. Here, the northern andsouthern distribution limits for both species in Europe, as determined from the georeferenced database,were specified for D. marginatus by the belt of 33-51° N latitude and for D. reticulatus by the belt of 41-57° N latitude. Thus, overlapping species distributions were found between 41° N and 51° N.

Map of georeferenced Dermacentor marginatus locations in Europe (Rubel et al., 2015).

Map of georeferenced Dermacentor reticulatus locations in Europe (Rubel et al., 2015).


Georeferenced ixodid tick locations for Germany, Version 1 (12 Oct. 2014)

Georeferenced Dermacentor data are currently used for habitat modeling and will be provided at the beginning of 2016.


Rubel, F., K. Brugger, M. Monazahian, B. Habedank, H. Dautel, S. Leverenz and O. Kahl, 2014:
The first German map of georeferenced ixodid tick locations.
Parasites & Vectors, 7:477.

Rubel, F., K. Brugger, M. Pfeffer, L. Chitimia-Dobler, Y. Didyk, S. Leverenz, H. Dautel, and O. Kahl, 2015:
Geographical distribution of Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Europe.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, in press.


The data collection was supported by the German Federal Environmental Agency, project FKZ 3713 48 402.

2. Tick habitat modeling

In preparation

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3. Tick density modeling


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Boehnke, D., K. Brugger, M. Pfäffle, P. Sebastian, S. Norra, T. Petney, R. Oehme, N. Littwin, K. Lebl, J. Raith, M. Walter, R. Gebhardt, and F. Rubel, 2015:
Estimating Ixodes ricinus densities on the landscape scale.
Int. J. Health Geogr., 14:23.